So you’re thinking about doing Teacher Training? You’re in the right place.
Choosing who to train with is a big decision. It’s not just about the financial cost, or the training location, or the timing. It’s about the people leading the training and the philosophy behind what they do.
We’ve created this Guide to make your research that much easier. This is your one stop shop to NZ Yoga Teacher Trainings, with a variety of styles represented.
You can easily browse through all the trainings on offer and get a good feeling for who you might want to train with, and then contact the provider direct for more information.
Contemporary Yoga • Advanced Yoga Teacher Training Modules • Led by Karla Brodie, Neal Ghoshal & guest faculty
Contemporary Yoga offers in-depth Advanced Yoga Teacher Training modules. Full details and dates for all these modules can be found on our website.
These courses are suitable for all Yoga teachers. Individual modules can be taken to suit your own calendar, or as stand-alone professional development courses to upskill, deepen and further your Yoga practice and teaching.
Restorative Yoga – the art of resting – is now a key component in many yoga classes. On this course, you will learn how to teach Restorative Yoga and how to integrate restorative poses into your classes. Along with in-depth theory, much of the course is spent practicing and sharing restorative practices.
Pregnancy Yoga Teacher Training
The most comprehensive Pregnancy Yoga Teacher Training available in New Zealand – supporting the Mind-Body through the continuum of fertility, ante-natal, birth and post-natal Yoga, led by top experts in this field.
Yogi Kids Teacher Training
Are you passionate about Yoga and mindfulness? Love working with children? Keen to inspire them to truly shine? Contemporary Yoga presents Yogi Kids Teacher Training, with Michaela Sangl. Michaela is one of the most experienced and beloved teachers of yoga for children in New Zealand and the founder of Yogi Kids Professional Development.
Yoga Vocals with Sylvia Rands
As a Yoga teacher, how your voice has a direct impact on the effectiveness of your teaching. Sylvia offers a dynamic approach to voice training designed to awaken and empower voice, body and being. She has over 30 years experience in voice training and sound healing.
Foundations of Movement
In this course, we offer a deep exploration into the primary developmental movement patterns that shape our growth from infancy to adulthood. We investigate how these natural movement patterns may profoundly inform our Yoga practice – we learn how to move with complete easefulness and stability.
The Business of Yoga
Learn how to support yourself and thrive as a Yoga teacher – marketing skills, financial know-how and much more, with expert guest faculty – leaders in their field.
Kawai Purapura • 150H Advanced Yoga Teacher Training • Specialised Module “Yoga Nidra & Restorative Yoga” • Led by Sanyassi Pragyadhara and Swami Karma Karuna
150 hour Advanced Yoga Teacher Training “Yoga Nidra & Restorative Yoga”: 5 day immersion 11-16 February, followed by three weekends 21-23 February, 13-15 March, 20-22 March 2020
The training is held at Kawai Purapura Retreat Centre, Auckland.
Costs for the 150 hour module: $2295 early bird price (before 16 December 2019), $2595 full course fee.
Discounted price for both advanced teacher training modules: NZ$ 3990 (save $300) if enroling before 1 January 2020
All details here.
Prerequisite for the 150 hours is the completion of a foundational 200 hour Yoga Teacher Training. The 5 day immersion (11-16 February 2020) can be joined without pre-requisite (Yoga Alliance Continuing Education Provider).
In times where so many people become yoga teachers, it’s time to find your uniqueness. This 150 Advanced module is for yoga teachers who would like to expand their teaching skills and become specialists in their field. We will concentrate on three areas in the training: 1) Yoga Nidra, 2) Restorative Yoga and 3) Basic Breathing Methods. All these practices reduce stress and anxiety, and engender feelings of relaxation and calmness. Yoga Nidra is a state of being in which the mind lets go of the external world and turns inward to reflect upon itself. It is a state of deep peace, clarity and acceptance. Yoga Nidra is a specific practice that gradually trains the mind to be able to reach that tranquil space effortlessly. A simple series of restorative postures performed in such a way as to liberate and promote the free flow of gross and subtle movement; Gross movement related to the joints, organs and tissues and subtle movement related to the energetic network / Prana. Working actively with this principle of movement activates the inherent healing and regenerative power. Basic breathing methods encourage optimal breathing patterns and correct poor breathing habits that may either depress or agitate the nervous system, mind and emotions. Basic breathing methods form one of the essential stages of Yoga Nidra and are effective tools for inducing calmness and clarity in any given situation.
This training will provide you with new tools to take onto your own practice, teaching and into everyday life.
14th February – 10th January 2021, Central Auckland.
Regular price -$5,995 Earlybird price – $5,520
Our 350 hour Diploma in Yoga Studies program is perfect for practitioners who are wanting to understand yoga on a deeper level and gain confidence and skills in teaching others with awareness, compassion, sensitivity and clarity.
You will be taken on a journey through classical hatha yoga, inspired by the teachings of Krishnamacharya, enriched with insights from modern science and current movement research.
The aim is to provide a thought-provoking course, which actively encourages students to question current teaching methods and alignment cues. Trainees will be encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of functional anatomy and how to use this understanding to foster a healthy approach to movement and teach yoga in a modern day setting without losing the essence of yoga practice.
A large part of this program is the nourishment and support you will receive in developing your personal practice, which is key to becoming an effective teacher.
OM Yoga Studio • RYT 300Hr+ Advanced Yoga Teacher Training • Led by Sandey Hoskin, Fiona Liu & Kylie Rook
Modules (spread over 5/6 days, 8am-6pm):
• 12 – 17 November 2019 – Module 2: Yin, Mindfulness and Meridians
• 11 – 16 February 2020 – Module 3: Biomechanics and Functional Anatomy for the Modern Day Yogi
• 16 – 21 June 2020 – Module 4: Ancient Philosophy for Modern Day
• 26-30 August 2020 – Module 1: Creative and Meaningful Sequencing
Non-contact hours: Independent Student Study occurs throughout the year including final written exam.
Om Yoga Studio, Stonefields, Auckland
Cost per module: $1,150; Cost for full payment of 300 hours: $4,300; Early registration cost: $4,000. Payment options are available.
Om Yoga Studio Advanced Yoga Teacher Training gives you a broader and deeper set of skills and insights to bring into your personal practice and your teaching. We focus on developing an advanced understanding of how to effectively teach asana through intelligent and thoughtful sequencing of vinyasa and yin yoga, pranayama and meditation practices to all levels and conditions of students, including group and private sessions.
We look in greater depth at each of the topics considered essential in the ongoing development as a professional yoga teacher. Our lead teachers are highly experienced and passionate about yoga and want to share this incredible transformational journey into deeper study of self and others.
The program asks for your full commitment to being on the path of the teacher; staying in your personal practice and teaching in an active way. This pathway gives you the freedom to choose specific areas for deeper study and training with the modules over the course of a year.
* May – September 2020, Urban Ashram, Browns Bay, Auckland.
* Earlybird price $4,995 includes 5-month membership at Urban Ashram* (If paid in full before Feb 1st 2020)
* Full price $5,400 includes 5-month membership at Urban Ashram*
* Considerations taken for out of Auckland applicants
The Ralston Method 250hr Yoga Alliance certified teacher training provides a solid foundation to become a confident teacher of yoga, informed with current knowledge and discovering depth in one’s own personal practice. The comprehensive curriculum covers the art, science and philosophy of yoga and how to interweave knowledge of functional anatomy, alignment and assists, to empower you to teach from a place of your own knowing, no rehearsed scripts, no ill-informed cues, you will learn how to truely teach yoga. This training offers a unique experience to receive tutoring and guidance from one of New Zealand’s most well respected and successful yoga teachers. Nikki is committed to providing you with the highest quality of education along with practical tools, so that you can confidently step forth into the world and help people find more ease and freedom in their body and mind. Wether you want to go on and teach in studios or simply share with family and friends, through this training you can help others rediscover happiness and joy in their lives, in sharing the practice with others, we in turn learn even more about ourselves.
“To become a yoga teacher is one of the greatest services you can contribute to the world and one of the most honourable occupations you can have.”
International Yoga Teachers Association NZ – Yoga Aotearoa • Yoga Teaching Diploma Course • Distance Learning
* 1st March 2020 – May 2021, distance learning with four Residential Teacher Training weekends in Wellington.
* Cost $7000, (excludes text books, food, accommodation and travel to Residential Teacher Trainings). Discounts available for completion of previous mini-yoga Introduction course. Instalment payments also available.
IYTA NZ has 50 years of Yoga teacher training and support. Our focus on quality teachers celebrating inclusive and post-lineage Yoga, in depth and holistic training, and post-graduate support within our IYTA community is strong.
In our Teaching Diploma Course students gain knowledge and experience of yoga over 18 months of distance learning, reflecting on how they can apply it to their life, yoga practice and yoga teaching.
The International Yoga Teachers Association NZ Teaching Diploma Course provides the opportunity to explore the eight limbs of Yoga as explained in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras. With the Sutras providing the framework for learning, students explore styles and teaching pathways that resonate with them, and build up a holistic toolbox of Yoga knowledge. Students are encouraged to develop a personal sadhana, weaving the Yamas and Niyamas into their learning, both on and off the mat, while exploring Asana, Pranayama and Meditation, through personal observation and reflection. A strong focus on functional anatomy and physiology, health & wellbeing, and philosophy and history is paramount, with monthly case studies and practices to delve deeply into.
The course provides an excellent foundation for those wishing to develop their own practice and share that with others through teaching. Most students find that a weekly commitment of 14 to 20 hours is required, and enjoy the ability to work flexibly around their life and commitments. Each student is fully supported on their journey by the network of Tutors, Assessors and Mentors, who encourage and challenge them to deepen their learning for the duration of the course. Tutors are chosen for their broad knowledge and experience of teaching Yoga, and bring a wide range of depth and understanding.
For further information and enrolment, contact Jo Chandler Bringins, IYTA NZ Teaching Diploma Course Coordinator, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Contemporary Yoga • 200Hr Yoga Alliance & Yoga NZ Registered Teacher Training • Led by Karla Brodie, Neal Ghoshal & guest faculty
* Offered in 3 formats:
1) 18-Day Intensive. Three 6-Day blocks with two rest days, 6–26th January 2020
2) 9 Weekends Training over 4 months, April to August 2020
3) Two 9-Day Intensives. August to October 2020
* All located in our wonderful venue in St Heliers, Auckland. $3250 (early bird)
Passionate about yoga? Inspired to share and teach?
Dive into the foundations of anatomy, alignment and movement in a way that is safe, stable, easeful and empowering with a faculty of passionate, experienced and inspiring teachers.
With every breath and movement, you’ll be supported to find your own feet, resource strength from within, and give voice to the passion that calls you to share.
We believe in excellence in yoga teacher training. For us and our students, this is far beyond teaching asana. Contemporary Yoga is a truly holistic programme that offers a transformational experience for students that explores deep into the yoga tradition and modern movement theory to build skills that support and enhance a beautiful life of teaching.
“This training surpassed all expectations – challenging, inspiring, and deeply informative.”
Bridget McNamara, 2017
“An investment in the rest of my life.”
Sarah Hart, 2018
Nine modules over a three year period starting in April 2020 in Motueka.
Our Dru Yoga course provides a journey of self-discovery that takes your personal practice to new levels, while training you to be a safe and confident yoga teacher.
Dru Yoga is a yoga of the heart, combining potent flowing sequences, breath work, positive affirmations, visualisations, and ancient yogic practices to create transformative mind/body yoga experiences.
On our in-depth yoga course, you’ll receive detailed written, verbal and hands on instruction in structural alignment, core strengthening, subtle energetics, meditation and philosophy. You’ll also learn comprehensive modifications to be able to present every practice to all ages/abilities.
Our modulated course is a great opportunity to personally enjoy three mini-retreats each year with valuable space to integrate and practice in between modules. We have also developed payment schemes that spread the investment over time to best suit everyday budgets.
We have been teaching Dru Yoga and Meditation in Australia for 20 years and in the UK for 40 years. The Dru Yoga Teacher Training is YA registered, IYTA recognised and is highly regarded internationally.
We take our yoga off the mat with our not for profit projects, peace initiatives, Ayurveda and volunteering. So why not join a national network and global yoga community that is making a difference in the world!
* You can choose from three options in 2020:
1) 18 Day Intensive: 3 – 21 January 2020
2) 9x Weekends Mode: 1 May – 23 August 2020
3) 2x 9 Day Intensive: 4 – 13 Sept & 6 – 15 November 2020
* All trainings are held at Kawai Purapura Retreat Centre, Auckland.
* Early Bird rate is $3200, full course fee is $3700.
The 200 Hour Yoga Teacher Training is dedicated to helping you establish a solid foundation to becoming an inspiring and skilled teacher. It trains you in the ancient traditional approach to yoga practice and extends your journey into the modern evolutionary pathways of yoga, exploring the richness of the relationship between body, mind and movement. The range and scope of the curriculum is holistic; covering asana, pranayama, meditation, different styles of yoga, lifestyle, home practice and mentorship. You will gain enough in-depth knowledge and understanding of each of the eight limbs of yoga to be able to connect with the origin of yoga and the teacher within.
Kawai Purapura is a Yoga Alliance recognised yoga school that applies yogic wisdom in all areas of life. Senior Lead Teacher Sannyasi Pragyadhara guides you through the training, holds the space for the group and coordinates your education. There is a range of excellent guest teachers who share their knowledge and expertise with the students.
* 10 – 26 April 2020, Nelson.
* Super Early-bird: $2850 available until midnight 30th Nov 2019; Early-bird: $2995 available until midnight 13th March 2020; Full price: $3300
Our Yoga Alliance accredited 200hr Yoga Teacher Training course is for those starting their journey to becoming a teacher, or for those wishing to deepen their own personal practice.
The well thought out curriculum will provide you with the skills to practice and teach consciously and insightfully from your own embodied knowledge, covering The Eight Limbs of Yoga. You will gain deep insights into yourself and others, grow in confidence, presence and the ability to share and live from your heart.
With Chai’s in-depth knowledge of anatomy and alignment and passion for yoga philosophy and history, a strong foundation is set for students, complemented by studying class sequencing, teaching skills and practice. Each session has two trainers for added support.
The course is unique in offering a strong focus on self-esteem, working with the More To Life Foundation, introducing tools to enable students to live, grow & teach with new found confidence & courage. The training program will enrich your practice and ability to teach and live authentically.
* 14th February – 10th August 2020, Auckland central
* Regular price -$3,800 Earlybird price – $3,500
Our 200 hour training program is for dedicated yoga practitioners who want to understand the deeper layers of yoga and enrich their own practice and life.
Whether attending the program for personal development or with the intention of learning to teach, you will be nurtured and supported throughout your journey toward greater self-discovery and equanimity.
You will be empowered with skills from the art & science of yoga to enhance personal wellbeing and nourish your thirst for sound knowledge. You will receive a practical and theoretical understanding of yoga – yoga psychology, asana, pranayama, meditation, anatomy and teaching principles.
Combined with your evolving personal practice, this will give you a sound platform from which to commence your journey as a qualified yoga teacher and share your passion with others.
A small training group – maximum 15, provides a nourishing and supportive environment and caters to each students’ personal needs.
* Energy Body Essentials, Auckland March 1 -7 OR Christchurch March 30 – April 5
* Nourishing Roots, Auckland September 13 – 19 OR Christchurch October dates TBC
* Living in Your Element Retreat March 2021 Location: Mt Hutt, Canterbury OR Whangarei Heads
* Aligning Head & Heart September 2021: Christchurch, Auckland
Open to those with yoga teacher, health care practitioner or equivalent leadership qualifications/experience, we offer a fusion of meridian balancing practices designed to nourish lifelong wellbeing. The theoretical and practical foundations include: Chinese Medical theory, Tibetan Yoga, Qigong, Feldenkrais and Restorative Yoga.
The whole 200 hour program includes four modules delivered across seven days, fifty hours per course
1. Energy Body Essentials; 2. Nourishing Roots; 3. Living In Your Element; 4. Aligning Head and Heart.
Courses are delivered using clear structured steps with two modules per year.
The lead facilitator is Cameron Tukapua – Chinese medicine practitioner, longtime yogini. Delivery includes some sessions by wonderfully talented teaching peers; Brian Berneman, Lou Warren and Tiana Edney. Our approach is structured, supportive, Heart and Yin oriented. Applicants likely to flourish would be: flexible, committed, grounded, stable, open to new healing models which use the Yoga studio as a base. 16 – 25 students
* Part 1: 10th – 20 March 2020; Part 2: 20th – 30th October 2020
* Hosted at the Golden Yogi, Takapuna, Auckland
* Cost: $4800 or Earlybird $4,400
The Aquarian Teacher Program is the KRI Level One Certification Program in Kundalini Yoga as taught by Yogi Bhajan®. In Level One you will become an instructor and gain a deep understanding and experience of the core science of Kundalini Yoga. You will develop the skills to instruct students in Kundalini Yoga kriyas and meditations as taught by Yogi Bhajan. This 220 hour course will include teaching Kundalini Yoga postures, Kriyas, Meditation, Pranayam, Mantras, Mudras, Sacred Sound, Yogic History & Philosophy, Yogic and Western Anatomy, and Yogic lifestyle.
Guru Dharam has taught Kundalini yoga since 1979. He founded the Lotus Healing Centre, a multidisciplinary holistic facility, in London in 1989 and served as the Vice Principal of the London Academy of Oriental Medicine until 1997. Guru Dharam is recognized as a highly experienced Teacher taught directly by Yogi Bhajan. He is registered as a KRI Mentoring Lead Teacher Trainer. (Levels One and Two).
Siri Sat embodies an elegant and precise approach to the teachings of Kundalini Yoga. She is a Lead Teacher Trainer with a specialty in Posture and Alignment enhanced by earlier training as a professional dancer and choreographer. Siri Sat feels blessed to have trained directly with Yogi Bhajan.
Trimurti Yoga NZ • Yoga Alliance Certified Multi-style 200HR Yoga Teacher Training • Led by Beryl Lebowitz Ciccoricco & TYNZ’s Dunedin Team
* 10 weekends over 3 months, beginning on Sat, Feb 22 and ending on Sun, May 17 with two short breaks after weeks 3 & 6.
* Investment: $2300 for one-time payment, or $2400 on payment plan (3 x payments of $800)
* Hosted at our beautiful loft space at A Y U Dunedin in the chic Warehous Precinct
Trimurti Yoga NZ is proud to bring the multi-style training of our internationally renowned school in India to Dunedin, New Zealand with the most experienced and dedicated teaching team the South island has to offer!
This course focuses on three main styles of yoga (Hatha, Ashtanga Vinyasa, and Vinyasa Krama) and touches on many, many more. There is literally something for everyone! We will dive deep into Anatomy & Physiology, Yogic Anatomy, Pranayama, Yogic Tradition/Philosophy, Yoga Nidra & Meditation, Patanjali’s Sutras, The Art of Teaching, Alignment & Adjustment, and explore the many ways a yoga practice can support your health and wellness daily, whether or not you plan to teach. This program is affordable and accessible, meeting on weekends, so you don’t have to put your world on hold. Come learn valuable life skills in a comfortable, supportive environment, and make friends for life. This TTC has been called a Total Transformation Course for good reason!
Read the testimonials on our website or check out our reviews on Facebook.
3-22 October 2020, Kawai Purapura Retreat Centre, Auckland. Early bird: $1995, Full course fees: $2295
Tantric practices like kumbhaka, bandha, mudra, mantra and kriya are a set of precise tweaks that bring forth complete illumination of the self. Tantric hatha is the subtle refinement of the yoga practices we already know. This system deals primarily in energetics and yet the beauty of this practice lies in its practicality. Taken with dedication, tantric hatha is a stable, sustainable transformation modality that has a lasting effect. Join the immersion in October 2020!
It is this concept that fascinated Amy Bassett and through her explorations into tantric hatha, she is now a Senior Graduate of world-class school The Practice in Bali.
All Yoga Teacher Trainings at Kawai Purapura are certified with Yoga Alliance U.S. This Advanced module can be combined with 150 hours training in Yoga Nidra & Restorative Yoga, leading up to the RYT500 qualification. Email the course coordinator for more information.
January 12 – 17th, 2020, Ohakune, $2395 (early bird available).
This Direct Realization Tantra (Kashmir Shaivism) training is for yoga practitioners ready to deepen their practice, and yoga teachers ready to expand their teaching.
The teaching will focus on: Upāya: The Skilful Means to Liberation and will include:
* View teachings
* Philosophical teachings
* Practice teachings
* Transmission teachings
We’ll be paying particular attention to The Empowered Means, which is centered in heart-mind/energy and on shedding mental constructs (aśuddha-vikalpas) that are not in alignment with reality. In essence it’s about dissolved the false constructs that prevent us from engaging directly with reality. Students will learn how to work directly with heart-mind/energy through the power of Knowing and the process of cognition.
Through a combination of deep practice, reflection, inquiry, de-briefing and checking in, each student will have the opportunity to clearly see the aśuddha-vikalpas running in their system, and using Tantric tools & technologies, learn how to identify these false constructs, disarm them, and uninstall them.
Engagement with this process eventually leads to immediate intuitive apprehension of Reality without the intervention of thinking mind.
January 2020 – June 2022, 2 modules per year, Raumati South, Wellington $9950
Following the holistic and classical teachings of Professor T Krishnamacharya, this intensive Yoga Therapy training will:
* Present the philosophies, principles and frameworks of Viniyoga Therapy as a self-empowering and complementary system of health
* Provide comprehensive training in the understanding and application of the vast array of tools that Viniyoga offers (āsana, prānāyāma, dhyānam, āhāra niyama, vihāra niyama, mantra, chanting, bhāvanā, mudrā, nyāsa, svādhyāya)
* Teach participants to implement the one-to-one approach to healing through Viniyoga
* Assist in providing a safe environment to facilitate the trainees in the often challenging journey of personal and spiritual development as well as evolution of their own unique strengths as healers.
This training is suited to those who would like to become Yoga therapists who can develop individualized Yoga therapy practices for students with a wide range of physical, mental, and/or spiritual health concerns.
* Part 1: 23rd February – 7th March 2020; Part 2: 23rd May – 1st June 2020
* Hosted at the Golden Yogi, Takapuna, Auckland
* Pricing: $4800 or Earlybird $4,400
This program will provide you with the tools and the knowledge to find your voice as a teacher and start teaching. You will begin by learning to teach the basics as we explore styles from the Ashtanga and Iyengar Methods. Joan also holds a background in meditation, Ayurveda, and different therapeutic studies which she applies to all of her trainings. This training aligns with the authentic traditions as instructed by Krishnamacharya and his students Sri K. Patthabi Jois and B.K.S. Iyengar. We will explore the details of alignments blended in with the dynamic breath based movements learning to create a vinyasa flow class that is accessible to everyone! You will also deepen your understanding of philosophy, anatomy, subtle body, and chanting.
Joan Hyman spent fifteen years as a distinguished YogaWorks Senior Teacher before bringing her expertise to Wanderlust as the Director of Teacher Trainings in 2016. Now, with over twenty years’ experience leading retreats, trainings, and international workshops, Joan continues to travel the globe leading her own signature trainings. A leader in the Los Angeles yoga community, Joan’s open-hearted approach to teaching yoga keeps both her inner spirit and her students continuously evolving.
* February 28th – June 7th, 2020, at Om Yoga Studio, Stonefields, Auckland.
* Cost option 1: NZ $4,900, includes 4 months unlimited yoga and 10% off all books.
* Cost option 2: NZ$4,400 if you already have an unlimited membership with The Yoga Corner/ Om Yoga Studio.
* Early Registration Discount: Save $300 if you register and pay before November 30th, 2019.
Om Yoga Studio RYT 200-hour teacher training is a comprehensive program that will provide the essential knowledge and tools for truly dedicated students who wish to teach or simply enhance their practice and understanding of yogic principles and philosophy.
Providing an opportunity to deepen and develop your understanding of yoga, within a program that is internationally recognised by Yoga Alliance.
Why learn with us…
* Professional and transformational learning environment.
* Time spent on learning the asanas (postures) anatomy and biomechanics.
* Small class size, offering individual attention.
* Variety of yoga styles, mindfulness and meditation (Vinyasa, Hatha and Yin).
* The art of using your voice with confidence and authenticity.
* Real class teaching experiences.
* Ongoing support after graduating, from the lead trainers.
* Experienced facilitators, together with over 3000hrs of training.
* After training is complete students get the opportunity for continued mentoring
Join The Guide
These articles below may help you make a more informed decision about which teacher training is right for you.
Plus, over the years we’ve often done interviews or written articles about many of the training providers. Use the search bar at the bottom of the home page to uncover those articles.
How It Works
We compiled this guide by scouring the NZ Yoga scene to find all the current teacher trainings, and then invited every training to participate. Not all trainings wanted to be included, so it doesn’t include every training in the country. There is an administration fee for inclusion.